A Black Moon

   What is a “Black Moon”? According to a commonly used definition a “Black Moon” is any month during which there are 2 new Moons, or even more rare a month with no new Moons. Obviously the Moon at new phase is in the direction of the Sun and therefore is not visible at all, perhaps given rise to the name “Black Moon” because the illuminated side of the Moon is toward the Sun, and the unilluminated, dark, side of the Moon is toward the Earth.
   On Thursday August 1st the first of two new Moons this month will rise about 30 minutes after the Sun rises and will not be visible as it follows the Sun across the sky to moonset about 1 hour after sunset local time. On August 30th the second new Moon of the month will follow a similar pattern as the new Moon on August 1st in that this new Moon also will not be visible as it too follows the Sun, setting within an hour after the Sun sets. Graphics below are set for the time when the new Moon transits, or is due south, and is mid-way between rising and setting.
   What makes the term “Black Moon”, in this instance, interesting is that depending on your time zone the “Black Moon” may have been either July or August depending on your local time zone for the new Moon of July 31st or August 1st.

 
New Moon Dates and Times (using UT)
July 2          19:16 UT
August 1         3:12 UT  (July 31 10:12 pm CDT)
August 30       10:37 UT


   
   
   

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July Moon at 2nd Ascending Node

   Tuesday July 30th the 27.5-day old thin waning crescent Moon will be crossing the plane of the ecliptic moving north relative to the ecliptic. This is known as the ascending node, one of two intersections the Moon’s orbital path has with the ecliptic. The ecliptic is actually the Earth’s orbit and the Moon’s orbit is inclined about 6o from the ecliptic. So there are two node intersections, the ascending and descending nodes.

   On the day of the node crossing the very thin waning crescent Moon rises about an hour before the Sun rises and is located nearly directly west from the ‘Twin’ stars, Pollux and Castor.

   Does our Moon actually go around the Earth as many graphics show? From our perspective on the Earth the Moon appears to circle around the Earth. However, in reality, the Moon orbits the Sun together with the Earth*

*Click here to read my 2006 Scope on the Sky column “The Real Shape of the Moon’s Orbit”. (PDF)

Read this very informative article about the Earth-Moon system and their orbital motions, written by Joe Hanson. “Do We Orbit the Moon?”

   
   
   

Click here to go to the Qué tal in the Current Skies web site for monthly observing information, or here to return to bobs-spaces.


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A Bullish Moon, or A Moon – Bull Conjunction, or Bull Gets Mooned!

   Over the next 3 mornings, July 26, 27,and 28 before sunrise, the waning crescent Moon will be moving across the shoulders and head of the constellation Taurus the Bull. As it traverses the constellation pattern the waning Moon will come within about 8o from the open star cluster, the Pleiades and within about 4-5o from the v-shaped open star cluster the Hyades.
   This should make for some good viewing through binoculars, especially on the 27th when the Moon passes about 2-3o from the reddish star Aldebaran in the Hyades. How close the conjunction between the Moon and Aldebaran will be depends greatly on your viewing location’s longitude. This graphic is for when the two are their closest which is 2.5o around 1 UT (8 pm CDT).


   
   
   


Click here to go to the Qué tal in the Current Skies web site for monthly observing information, or here to return to bobs-spaces.


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July Moon at Apogee

   Our Moon reaches apogee, (greatest distance from Earth), for this orbit, on Sunday July 21st. At that time the Moon will be at a distance of 31.79 Earth diameters 251,954 miles (405,480 km) from the Earth.

   On the day of the apogee Moon the 19-day old waning gibbous Moon rises around midnight local time and sets later the following morning.

   Does our Moon actually go around the Earth as this graphic shows? From our perspective on the Earth the Moon appears to circle around the Earth. However, in reality, the Moon orbits the Sun together with the Earth*
   *Click here to read my 2006 Scope on the Sky column “The Real Shape of the Moon’s Orbit”. (PDF)

   Read this very informative article about the Earth-Moon system and their orbital motions, written by Joe Hanson. “Do We Orbit the Moon?”

   
   
   

Click here to go to the Qué tal in the Current Skies web site for monthly observing information, or here to go to bobs-spaces.


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The Time of Apollo – 50th Anniversary

earth from moon   July 20th 1969 was the day the United States landed the Apollo 11 Lunar Lander the Eagle on the Sea of Tranquility. This was the first time someone from Earth walked on the Moon, with several successful missions to follow. Much of the Apollo missions were about beating the former Soviet Union, or probably more appropriate, being the first in some space exploration endeavor. This was the ‘Space Race’ and at least for landing people on the Moon, the United States won. Since then the focus of crewed (aka manned) space exploration has been confined to low, near Earth orbit – primarily with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions.
   I can very well remember sitting in the squadron barracks day-room in July of 1969 with other GIs watching the first men to step out of their lander and walk on the Moon. In the years that followed, I left the Air Force, completed undergraduate and graduate schools, and began my teaching career. Along the way I closely followed every NASA mission, crewed or robotic, and incorporated my excitement and passion of space exploration with my teaching. Now with the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission it sort of brought home how much time has passed since the days of seemingly endless, almost routine, launches from the Florida coast.
   I don’t think my mother, who used to live in Lake Mary Florida (about 40 miles west from the Kennedy Space Center), ever caught on to the timing for my family vacations to visit with her! We would be there around the time of a rocket launch, or in the case of the Shuttle, launches and landings. From her house we could watch the lift-off on TV and then step outside to see the vehicle climbing into the atmosphere. Or there were times when we would be ‘boomed’ out of bed, and the the windows would rattle as the shuttle passed over head leaving behind it’s signature double sonic boom.

   Somewhat sadly I am part of the only generation to have witnessed earthlings walking on another world. So Far! That may change with the NASA Artemis program plans to land a crew on the Moon by 2024.

   The evening skies on July 20th 1969 and July 20th 2019.

   The four videos below will perhaps highlight and celebrate some of how I and probably many others feel about space exploration. The first video, Overview, is interviews with 5 Astronauts as they describe how viewing the Earth from space has changed them. The second video, The Time of Apollo, is from the 16mm film days, and is a somber look at the Apollo missions. It is narrated by Burgess Meredith (the Penguin in the TV Batman series!). The third video is a look at the Artemis program. The fourth video, Gagarin, is a video I produced with an original musical score by Daniel Eichenbaum. It is a look at our planet from orbit with quotes from Cosmonauts and Astronauts.

Additionally here is a link to my cloud drive where I have a collection of NASA Moon mission videos (mp4 format).

OVERVIEW from Planetary Collective on Vimeo.

The Time of Apollo

Artemis Program to the Moon

Gagarin


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July Moon at Descending Node and a Partial Lunar Eclipse

   Tuesday July 16th the Moon will be crossing the plane of the ecliptic moving south. This is known as the descending node, one of two intersections the Moon’s orbital path (dark green line) has with the ecliptic.

   On the day of the node crossing the full Moon will be passing through the Earth’s shadow giving the part of the world where the Moon will be visible a 65% partial lunar eclipse. This will be a penumbral lunar eclipse during which the Moon passes through the fainter outer Earth’s shadow, the penumbra. However the Moon will be passing deeply into the penumbral shadow giving viewers an relatively dark penumbral eclipse lasting more than 2 hours.

   The full Moon rises shortly before midnight July 16th and is about 6-7o to the east from the ringed planet Saturn. The graphic shows how far the Moon has moved from the Earth’s shadow since the end of the Eclipse.

   So where will the eclipse be visible? Not from the U.S. of A. The table below shows eclipse times in UT and a quick conversion to my time zone, U.S.A. Central Daylight Time (CDT=UT-5) shows the eclipse begins at 1:43 pm CDT, maximum is at 4:30 pm CDT, and eclipse ends at 7:17 pm CDT – all times are before the Moon rises for my time zone as well as the rest of North America.

Penumbral eclipse begins: 18:43:53 UT
Partial eclipse begins: 20:01:43 UT
Maximum eclipse: 21:30:43 UT
Partial eclipse ends: 22:59:39 UT
Penumbral eclipse ends: 00:17:36 on 17 Jul UT

   
   
   
   
   

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Moon – Saturn Conjunction

   Mid-evening Monday July 15th as the nearly full Moon rises it will be in a close conjunction with the outer ringed planet Saturn. The two will be separated by about 1-2o and both will easily fit within the field of view of binoculars, or a wide field telescope eyepiece.

   
   
   

Click here to go to the Qué tal in the Current Skies web site for monthly observing information, or here to return to bobs-spaces.


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