Mercury at Inferior Conjunction

   Wednesday July 1st the innermost planet Mercury reaches inferior conjunction. At inferior conjunction Mercury will move between the Earth and the Sun – much like the position of the Moon at new phase. The graphic to the right shows the planet positions relative to the Earth and Sun for both inner planets and outer planets.

   At this inferior conjunction Mercury will not be directly in line with the Earth and the Sun – on the ecliptic. Mercury has an orbital inclination of 7o with respect to the ecliptic. So like our Moon, Mercury during each complete orbit, will cross the plane of the ecliptic moving north (ascending node) and also moving south (descending node). For this inferior conjunction Mercury will be south of the ecliptic, by about 5.47o.

   
   
   

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June Moon at Perigee

   Our Moon reaches perigee, (closest to Earth), for this orbit, on Tuesday June 30th. At that time the Moon will be at a distance of 28.92 Earth diameters, 229,259 miles (368,958 km) from the Earth.

   On the day of the perigee Moon the 10-day old waxing gibbous Moon will be over the southeastern horizon around mid-evening.

   Does our Moon actually go around the Earth as this graphic shows? From our perspective on the Earth the Moon appears to circle around the Earth. However, in reality, the Moon orbits the Sun together with the Earth*
   *Click here to read my 2006 Scope on the Sky column “The Real Shape of the Moon’s Orbit”. (PDF)

   
   
   
   
   
   

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Virgo Spikes the Moon

   Our Moon, after traversing the boundaries of the constellation Leo the Lion, will then do a similiar crossing of the constellation Virgo the Harvest Maiden. Roughly midway across Virgo is the bright blue-white star Spica. From mythologies the star Spica represents a harvested bundle of grasses, maybe wheat or oats.
   On the evening of June 28th the Moon will be about 7o to the west from Spica, and the next evening, June 29th the Moon will about 9-10o to the east from Spica.

   
   
   

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Leo and the Moon

   The next several evenings, as our Moon waxes through its phases, the Moon will pass by some familiar celestial objects – stars, star clusters, and planets. They all have something in common, that being that these objects are near the ecliptic. Our Moon follows the ecliptic in a more or less parallel path assuming that parallel paths may be bent! The Moon’s orbit is inclined or tilted about 6o from the ecliptic meaning that the Moon will at times be above, below, or on the ecliptic.
   So with the above in mind on the evenings of June 24th and 25th the 3 to 5-day old waxing crescent Moon will be passing by the heart of Leo the Lion, the bright star Regulus. As you can see from the graphic above Regulus lies nearly on the ecliptic.

   
   
   

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Thin Moon on the Move

   Sunday June 21st, on the other side of the Earth from the U.S.A., the new Moon will be passing between the Earth and the Sun giving that side of the world an annular solar eclipse.
   About 1/2-day later the just past new Moon, an 0.80-day young thin waxing crescent Moon may be seen just above the western horizon at sunset local time. If you see the Moon look closely for a star-like object just to the left from the Moon. This is the inner planet Mercury.
   If you miss the Moon and Mercury on Sunday evening wait until Monday evening June 22nd to see the still thin 1.85-days old waxing crescent Moon near one of the Gemini ‘Twin’ stars, Pollux.
   Not had enough? On Tuesday June 23rd the 2.80-days young waxing crescent Moon will be near M44, the Beehive Cluster.
   Any of these conjunctions will look great in binoculars.

   
   
   

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June Moon at Ascending Node and a Solar Eclipse

   Sunday June 21st the new Moon will be crossing the plane of the ecliptic moving north. This is known as the ascending node, one of two intersections the Moon’s orbital path has with the ecliptic. The ecliptic is actually the Earth’s orbit, and the Moon’s orbit is inclined about 6o from the ecliptic. So there are two node intersections, the ascending and descending nodes.
   Whenever our Moon at either new or full phase crosses the plane of the ecliptic, a node crossing, there will be an eclipse of the Sun with a new Moon, or a lunar eclipse with the full Moon phase. On the 21st the new Moon will be aligned with the Sun for a solar eclipse. (Not visible from North America) However this solar eclipse is an annular solar eclipse, where at mid-eclipse the Moon does not completely cover the Sun. There is no ‘diamond bead’ effect, no corona like what is seen with a total solar eclipse. This is because the Moon and our Sun appear to be about the same size in the sky with the exception that the Moon’s orbit is more elliptical than the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. This means that the Moon can be closer or further away during a solar eclipse. With this annular solar eclipse the Moon is further away, appears smaller than the Sun, and at mid-eclipse leaves an annulus, a ‘ring of fire’ around the Sun as this animated graphic is showing.
Note, I have brightened the side of the Moon facing toward us. During a solar eclipse we would only see a silhouette of the Moon.

   Does our Moon actually go around the Earth as many graphics show? From our perspective on the Earth the Moon appears to circle around the Earth. However, in reality, the Moon orbits the Sun together with the Earth*
*Click here to read my 2006 Scope on the Sky column “The Real Shape of the Moon’s Orbit”. (PDF)


Click here to go to the Qué tal in the Current Skies web site for monthly observing information, or here to return to bobs-spaces.


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June Solstice – 2020

   Northern hemisphere spring comes to an end and its summer begins on Saturday June 20st at 21:45 UT (4:45 pm CDT) when the Sun ‘reaches’ the celestial coordinates of 23.5o north declination and 6 hours right ascension. With respect to the Earth’s surface the Sun is described as over the Tropic of Cancer, 23.5o, north latitude of the Earth’s equator. At this same time according to astrology the Sun is said to be entering the boundaries of the astrological constellation Cancer the Crab. Actually it is not. Interestingly about 7 hours later, June 21st at 9 UT (4 am CDT) the Sun will actually be entering the region of the Gemini Twins as it crosses the boundary between Gemini and Taurus.

   We know that it is the Earth’s orbital motion around the Sun that causes the sun’s apparent eastward motion among the stars in the background. This is how the Sun ‘reaches’ a celestial coordinate, how it ‘crosses’ the boundaries between constellations, or how it is ‘in’ a constellation.

   With respect to the southern hemisphere this is the end of their summer and start of their fall season. So thinking globally my preference has been to use the name of the month to designate the season change. Hence the use of the term June Solstice rather than summer solstice.

   
      
   

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Sun Not Really In Cancer

   According to the pseudoscience of astrology the Sun enters the constellation of Cancer the Crab on Sunday June 21st at 9 UT (4 am CDT). When in fact the actual position of the Sun on this date is still within the boundary of the constellation of Taurus the Bull, but by very little. The Sun is very close to the eastern boundary for Taurus and the western boundary for the Gemini Twins, as this graphic and the banner graphic at the top of the page shows.
   Interestingly the June solstice was yesterday
   Read a little more about how astrology has the Sun incorrectly placed in a previous blog, and in another blog discussing the effects of precession.
   
   
   
   

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Crescent Moon – Venus Close Conjunction

   Friday morning June 19th about an hour before sunrise look toward the eastern horizon for the 27.5-day old waning crescent Moon and the inner planet Venus. The two will be separated by about 1-2o and both will easily fit within the field of view of binoculars making for a striking view.
   You will be looking at a Moon that is about 24-hours from new Moon phase, and shines with an apparent magnitude of -8.90 compared with Venus shining with a -4.29 apparent magnitude.
   Off to the west over the eastern-southern horizon are the outer planets, Uranus, Neptune, Mars, and Dwarf Planet Ceres. Further to the west are the planets Jupiter and Saturn.

   
   
   

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Starlink 13 This Morning

   This set of Starlink satellites, number 13, was launched a few days ago, June 13th, and the stream of satellites passed over my location in western Missouri early this morning. The stream, SpaceX’s 9th launch, consisted of 58 Starlink satellites, and 3 SkySat Planet Satellites (Hi-res Earth surface pictures) following a path from the southwest to the northeast. The stream went past the bright star Vega in the constellation Lyra the Harp. Apparent magnitude was at least 2nd as they appeared at least as bright as the stars of the Big Dipper (1st – 2nd apparent magnitudes), but not as bright as Vega (0.0 apparent magnitude).
   The two pictures below are time-exposures, and I processed them into black and white and made some contrast adjustments. The camera lens was centered around the ‘Summer Triangle’ and aimed nearly straight overhead toward the west.
   My personal challenge is to find a camera setting or video setting to capture the stream as individual ‘dots’.
Stay tuned!
   Keep up with viewing Starlink, the ISS, and many other satellites by checking with the Heavens Above web site or cellphone App. Note: the link is set for my latitude and longitude. This may be changed to your location at the Heavens Above web site.

   
   
   

Click here to go to the Qué tal in the Current Skies web site for monthly observing information, or here to return to bobs-spaces.


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